Friday, December 21, 2007

27. William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet (Baz Luhrmann, 1996).


Anonymous said...

LOVE this movie

Martyne said...

Not a Dicaprio fan.I thought "Titanic" sucked despite the lovely Kate Winslet being in it. Bag of shit. Not a phrase becoming of a laydee like me but that is how I feel. The first CD I ever bought was "Sunscreen" by Baz Luhrmann.

Katie said...

How's the Frank/Jose slash going Emma?

Anonymous said...

Consider a satellite orbiting Earth. (Remember, the moon is a satellite as well). The satellite travels at such a speed that it is falling to Earth at the same rate that Earth is falling away from it, so it stays the same distance away from Earth.
Artificial satellites orbit Earth at different heights depending on their job. The greater their height, the longer it takes to orbit Earth.
A weather satellite, 700km above the Earth’s surface, takes 100 minutes to orbit. A communication satellite, 36 000 km above the Earth’s equator, takes 24 hours to orbit. We call this type of orbit geo-stationary.
The greater the distance between the Sun and any other body in the Solar system, the weaker the gravitational attraction. The size of the force is inversely proportional the square of the distance between them.
The name given to this force, which keeps things moving in a circle, is a centripetal forced.
For any body in orbit, the greater the gravitational force, the faster the body moves.

The life cycle of stars
- Stars form within clouds of dust and gas in space.
- Gravitational forces cause part of a dust cloud to contract.
- The contraction causes heating.
- A star us formed when there is enough temperature for a hydrogen nuclei to fuse into a helium nuclei releasing energy.
- As the fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei in the star’s core comes to an end, the star expands into a red giant.
- A small star, like our Sun, contracts and becomes a white dwarf, which changes colour and fades as it cools.
- Massive stars glow brightly again as they continue to fuse.
- Massive stars expand and contract several times and form the nuclei of heavier elements before becoming a supernova.
- An exploding supernova throws layers of dust and gas into space, leaving behind a very dense core called a neutron star.
- Second generation stars, such as our sun, can form in the cloud of dust and gas from the exploding supernova.
- Sometimes the core of a supernova contains too much material and goes on collapsing, forming a black hole.
- A black hole has such a large gravitational force that not even light can escape from it.

The birth of a star
A star is formed when large clouds of gas and dust start to clump together. These clouds are called nebulae.
Gravity pulls the gas and dust closer together and it becomes a spinning ball of gas. The ball of gas is so tightly packed together that it starts to get hot and after some time it starts to glow. This protostar shines but cannot be seen because it is hidden by clouds and dust. As it gets smaller it gets even hotter. After millions of years the protostar’s core is hot enough hydrogen for hydrogen nuclei to join together and form helium. This is called nuclear fission and is the same reaction as in a hydrogen bomb. In a nuclear fusion, 6 hundred million tonnes of hydrogen are changed into helium every second. Some of this mass is lost as energy.

The adult star
Once a star starts to produce energy, it does not change much for many millions of years. As long as there is a supply of hydrogen gas it will continue to shine.
The time it takes for hydrogen to be used up depends on the size of the star. Surprisingly, smaller stars live longer than larger ones. Although they have more fuel to start with, the larger stars make more energy and so use up their oxygen faster. Very large stars may only shine brilliantly for millions of years. Smaller stars start with less hydrogen gas, use it up slowly and shine for billions of years. Our Sun’s lifetime will be about 10 billion years.

The death of a star
When a star has used up the hydrogen gas in its core and cannot make any more energy starts to die. When an average sized star, like our Sun, stops making energy, its core starts to contract. But the outer part of the star expands, gets cooler and changes from yellow to red. It becomes a red giant. The Sun may expand to a hundred times it present size. It will swallow up Mercury and Venus. Its out edge may even reach Earth.
All that is left of the original star is the hot core that has shrunk down until it is about the size of Earth. It is very hot and shines as a tiny white star called a white dwarf. It no longer makes energy, so very gradually it cools and fades. Its colour changes from white to yellow to red. It then stops shining. Eventually it becomes a black dwarf.

Large stars, which contain at least 8 times as much material as the Sun, will end with a gigantic explosion. They only live for a few millions years, shining brightly as blue super giants, but when the hydrogen is used up they expand into red super giants, similar to the red giants from smaller stars.

The core of such a large star shrinks and becomes very hot; hot enough for the atoms of gas to combine and make other new materials, including carbon, oxygen and iron. The materials form in layers, the densest on the inside. While this is happening the star is making energy and is still shining. It stops making energy when the core contains mainly iron. In a short space of time, less than a second, the core collapses and there is a violent explosion. The whole star, except the core, is thrown outwards and then destroyed. This explosion is called the supernova and the resulting core, containing mainly neutrons, is called a neutron star. A neutron star us very dense. Imagine adding a teaspoonful of sugar to a cup of tea. Just that one teaspoonful of neutron star would have a mass of one hundred million tonnes.

The star may shine very brightly for a short time. It may even outshine the rest of its galaxy. The material thrown out by the explosion makes a shell of gas, which expands outwards bumping into the gas and dust in space. Astronomers can see these huge glowing clouds of gas, which are called supernova remains.

One famous supernova remnant is called the Crab Nebula because of its strange shape. The explosion that threw out this glowing cloud was seen by Chinese astronomers nearly a thousand years ago in 1054. it was so bright that it could be seen in the daylight for three weeks.

Eventually, the supernova remnant will merge into the other gas and dust in space and the whole life cycle will start again. The Solar System is made of these recycled materials. Planets contain material that must have come from the inside of giant stars or from supernova explosions.

Depending on the size of the star, the core could continue to collapse even more, when this happens, it becomes extremely dense. Gravitational forces are so large that not even light can escape. This former star is called a black hole.

The evolution of the universe
- The whole Universe is expanding.
- It might have started years ago in one place with a huge explosion – the Big Bang.
- Theories for the origin of the Universe take into account that light from other galaxies is shifted to the red end of the spectrum and further away galaxies are, the greater the red shift.
- One way of explaining this is that other galaxies are moving away from us very quickly and galaxies furthest from us are moving fastest.
- There are possible futures for the Universe depending on the amount of mass in the Universe and the speed at which the galaxies are moving apart.
- Knowledge of the rate of expansion of the Universe enables its age to be estimated.
- Scientists are trying to find evidence for life on other planets in the Solar System and elsewhere in the Universe.

The Big Bang Theory
Scientists believe that the Universe was formed about 15 billion years ago with an enormous explosion – The Big Bang. Following the explosion, all the matter in the Universe started to move apart at very high speeds. At the time of the Big Bang, there were no galaxies, stars or planets. The Universe was extremely hot, but as it expanded, it cooled down and gas

Anonymous said...

Please don't say the Titanic is crap. It is actually really touching since it is a true life story of that woman named in it and what she encountered. Thank you.